Read Passage I, II, and III carefully and answer the questions that follow. Each question carries 3 marks
Religion in its various forms is very strong in Nigeria. In order words, Nigerian people are very religious. Most of them believe that there is an unseen supernatural world, apart from the natural world we see around us. This other world is inhabited by beings who are the source of our knowledge of good and evil. they watch and judge us and if we offend them they may have to be appeased with prayers and sacrifices. Certain individuals in the natural world-priest, prophets and diviners – are believed to to be endowed with special powers to make contact with the other world. These individuals lay down ceremonies or rituals which must be observed if due honour is to be paid to the unseen beings. The religious beliefs and practices of Nigerians can be classified under three main headings: Traditional religion, Islam and Christianity. in this passage, our focus in on Traditional Religion.
Traditional or indigenous religion continues to exert a strong influence on many people’s mind partly because of its association with their birth places and families. Each ethnic group has its own religious traditions, and these are often linked to some sacred spots in the ethnic homeland. Yet the various traditional religions have much in common: a remote but benevolent high god; under him, a number of lesser gods who interact with mankind; and below them various spirits who inhabit natural objects (trees, streams, rocks, etc.); below them again, and closest to living men and women, the spirits of the ancestors.
In Yoruba tradition, for example, there are more than 400 lesser deities presided over by the high god, Olorun. Because he is remote from mankind, shrines are not built to him and worship is not offered to him directly. The lesser gods, on the other hand, are the subject of special cults, each with its own priest and devotees. Eshu, the messenger of the Gods; Ifa, thegod of divination; Shango, the god of thunder, and so on. Traditional religion was also strong in other parts of Nigeria. In igbo Traditional religion, there were fewer gods. Although there was a remote high god, the most important figure was Ala or Ani, the goddess of the earth. In Hausaland, traditional religion has largely gone underground owing to the influence of Islam, but belief in the existence of ‘Bori‘ spirits and their power to possess people, especially women, is strong in some areas. Each spirit is associated with certain type of behaviour, which is manifested by the possessed individual.
Divination – the discovery of what is unknown or is yet to happen by supernatural or magical means – is an important element of traditional religion. It is often one of the function of ‘medicine men’ or ‘herbalists’. In Igboland, there also used to be several oracles which people consulted in order to seek solutions to their problems. With the coming of Christianity, their influence has however waned, but in areas like Arochukwu and Okija, the influence of such oracles is still strongly felt.
(Adapted from Grant, Nnamonu and Jowitt (1997), Senior English Project: For Senior Secondary School Students)
1. Which Question Paper Type of Uses of English as indicated above is given to you?
(a) Type Green
(b) Type Purple
(c) Type Red
(d) Type Yellow
2. From the passage, one can say that all ethnic groups have
(a) different traditional religions with some elements of similarities
(b) completely different religious practices
(c) the same traditional religion
(d) the same religious manifestations with common deities.
3. According to the first paragraph, Nigerians believe that the
(a) supernatural and natural world co-exist
(b) natural and supernatural worlds are antagonistic
(c) supernatural world controls the natural world
(d) supernatural world exploits the natural world.
4. Traditional religion has waned in Nigeria owing to the
(a) influence of Islam over Bori spirits
(b) influence of Christianity over local oracles
(c) decline of the interest in traditional religions
(d) influence of non-traditional religions.
5. Which factor is common to all traditional religions as mentioned in the passage?
(a) Prayer only.
(c) Sacrifice only.
Recently, literally research reveals that Nigerians hardly have time to read. In essence, the reading culture in Nigeria is now at a low ebb. It is disturbing, however, that the few Nigerians that read concentrates on foreign books than indigenous productions. Most Nigerian authors of novels, storybooks, fiction and non-fiction series have decried, on different occasions, their woes. They were bitter in the way most owners of bookshops and publishers treat them. It was gathered that most renowned bookshops in Nigeria hardly sell books written by indigenous authors. They preferred to stock foreign books. When contacted by DAILY INDEPENDENT, the general manager of popular bookstore in Lagos Island declared that most of the bookshops preferred to stock foreign books because of higher demands for them, the question that bothers most Nigerian authors is, while their oversee counterparts are being rewarded with great international honours, why are Nigerians not according them such recognition in their own country?
Recently, Nigerian novelist, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie won the 2007 Orange Prize Award, the literary world’s top award for fiction in English written by women. The award carries a prize tag of $30,000. It was reported in Publishers Weekly, Half of a Yellow Sun, the book that earned her the award, was profoundly gripping. According to the reviewer, the book is a ‘transcendent novel of many descriptive triumph, most notably its diction of the impact of war brutalities on peasant and intellectuals alike. It is a searing history in fictional form, intensely evocative and immensely absorbing’. Chinua Achebe, ‘Father of Modern African Literature’, also won the second ever Man Booker international ‘Prize of “£60,000 with his first novel Things Fall Apart, published in 1958.’ When Professor Wole Soyinka won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1986, the fame confirmed the relevance of Nigerians in the world of classical excellence. Ben Okri won the 1991 Booker Prize with his work, The Famished Road, and the world celebrated Nigeria as the giant of Africa. It was also gathered that most of the publishers hurriedly produce books and in the process marred their good contents. Most of the books are not properly edited and actually become substandard when compared with the foreign products. The extent to which book publishing standard has fallen in Nigerian is alarming. Often Nigerian publishers have been blamed for this. It is instructive that none of the books mentioned had been published in Nigerian. It was discovered that most students in tertiary institutions depends on dictations from their lecturers and/or handouts. A science lecturer in one of the Nigerian universities, who had been a victim of handout sales scandal, told DAILY INDEPENDENT the reality of campus challenges in relation to books. ‘I was to dictate notes slowly to students who hung on every word in the absence of textbooks in a library that had, to all intent and purpose, stopped buying new books when the local currency devalued. But what other alternative does one have?
Adapted from DAILY INDEPENDENT, Monday, 20 August, 2007
6. It can be inferred from the passage that
(a) Nigerians have access to foreign books only
(b) Nigerian undergraduates do not read textbooks
(c) Nigerians read foreign and indigenous books alike
(d) Nigerians read mostly foreign books
7. The reason for lack of indigenous books in most renowned bookshops, according to the passage,
(a) Nigerians prefer reading foreign books
(b) foreign books attracts more buyers
(c) indigenous books are sometimes not available
(d) the low quality of indigenous books.
8. The expression … that earned her the award is profoundly gripping, as used in the passage, means that the book
(a) is highly interesting and captures attention
(b) is of high quality to the writer
(c) attracts many indigenous and foreign readers
(d) is widely acknowledged by many authors
9. The university science lecturer gives his reason for issuing handouts as
(a) lack of teaching aids among students
(b) low purchasing power
(c) low quality of books
(d) lack of sufficient time
10. A suitable title for this passage is
(a) Nigerian Literary Writers
(b) Nigerian Publishers and International Awards
(c) Poor reading Culture in Nigeria
(d) Why Nigerian Lecturers Sell Handouts.
It is said that experience is the best teacher, but to learn consciously through wisdom may even be a better and more convenient way. To learn by experience is to learn from mistakes. It means you have burnt your fingers and now ‘your eyes are open’. This is a tough, costly and inconvenient way to learn. Rather than leaving our learning to experience, why do we not learn consciously through wisdom? We can learn by consciously going out of our way to acquire knowledge and wisdom rather than leave our learning to chance. Surely, we can learn from mistakes but why wait till when we make mistakes before we learn? We should give more premium to learning by wisdom than by experience.
This will involve one making up ones mind to be decisive in learning. We must decide to learn consciously and not necessarily from negative experiences. The first step is to realize that life is simply the outcomes and outplay of decisions. Our life now is the sum total of our decisions and our future will be determined by our decision of today. If we decide to learn today we are not likely to make mistakes and when we do not make mistakes. Experience need not to be our best teacher.
To avoid making experience our best teacher will take more than a decision. We must couple our decision with a complete and wholehearted devotion. We must be resolved, resolute and resilient in our bid to learn by wisdom and not necessarily by experience. This is crucial because situations and circumstances will want us to make a detour and leave our learning and life to chance. We must therefore be disciplined to remain with our resolve to make a clean break with experience as our best teacher. Discipline in this regard means learning something new everyday by wisdom rather than experience. It means consciously getting better by the day in you chosen field. Discipline will demand taking advantage of every learning opportunity that comes our way. It will mean we must pay the price for learning by wisdom – invest in books, magazines, seminars and other means by which we may become wiser.
It is much easier and cheaper to learn consciously by wisdom than to learn by experience. When we learn by experience, the deed is done and we are just picking up the pieces – learning in regret how to avoid such predicament next time. Consider the child who grasps a burning coal, he has learned the hardway through the painful experience, but his fingers will remain burnt. Thus, the saying, that experience is the best teacher, may not be justifiable after all.
Adapted from Sunday Tribune, July 2007
11. The attitude of the writer of the passage can best be described as
12. It can be deduced from the passage that
(a) all experiences are best teachers
(b) learning through pains in better
(c) experience is superior to wisdom
(d) wise thoughts are more desirable than experience
13. Which of the following states is true according to the passage?
(a) man must make mistake in order to survive
(b) The totality of our actions should be decided by our judgement
(c) If we do not make mistakes, experience must be our teacher
(d) Our future would be judged by our past mistakes
14. According to the passage, we be disciplined to
(a) make experience our best teacher in reality
(b) learn from experience in future
(c) chose the learning opportunity that comes our way
(d) decide against making experience our teacher
15. The phrase a complete and wholehearted devotion, as used in the passage, means
(a) acting without doubt
(b) learning with tension
(c) learning without pains
(d) teaching with ease
The passage below has gaps numbered 16 to 25. Immediately following each gap, four options are provided. Choose the most appropriate options for each gap. Each question carries 3 marks
The medical definition of miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before twenty-four weeks. Miscarriage is very common, occurring in ten to twenty per cent, of conformed pregnancies. Most of these feature …16… [A. In the penultimate B. In the first C. around D. For] twelve week of pregnancy. The most common …17… [A. type B. Cause C. Period D. Symptom] is vaginal bleeding, which can range from light spotting to heavier than a period. You may see blood clots, brown discharge or other tissues that are not …18… [A. clearly B. naturally C. directly D. Medically] identifiable. Sometimes a sac-like structure is seen. Often, there is cramping with pelvic or back pain. You may find that the usual symptoms of pregnancy, such as breast tenderness, feeling sick and having to pass urine more …19… [A. painfully B. frequently C. gradually D. Commonly] than usual stop unexpectedly. Sometimes there are no signs or symptoms of miscarriage and pregnancy symptoms continue, and the miscarriage is only …20… [A. prevented B. managed C. discovered D. Stopped] in a routine scan. About half of all early miscarriages happen because of a problem in the way the genetic material from the egg and sperm have combined during …21… [A. pregnancy B. incubation C. mating D. Fertilization]. It can be difficult to find out why this has …22… [A. occurred B. enlarged C. continued D. emerged], but it is more likely to be due to random chance than to any underlying problem with either parent. Imbalances in pregnancy hormones, problems in the immune …23… [A. syndrome B. process C. response D. system], and some serious infections are also thought to make miscarriages more likely. The risk of miscarriage …24… [A. increases B. starts C. reduces D. appears] with age because the quality of eggs deteriorates. If a woman drinks too much alcohol or smokes heavily, the risk of miscarriage is higher. It is also increased with …25… [A. complicated B. advance C. multiple D. confirmed] pregnancies such as twins.
Adapted from Saturday Punch, 13 October, 2007
LEXIS, STRUCTURE AND ORAL FORMS
In each of question 26 to 35, select the option that best explains the information conveyed in the sentence. Each question carries 2 marks
26. Hardworking students must not have a finger in very pie at school.
(a) Hardworking students must not have a role to play in most activities in the school
(b) Only hardworking students must participate in all activities in the school
(c) Hardworking students do not participate in all activities in the school
(d) Hardworking students must ask others to participate in school activities.
27. The vice chancellor is riding the crest of the last quarter of his administration.
(a) The vice chancellor enjoys the acknowledgement of the success of his administration
(b) The vice chancellor does not enjoy the people’s criticism of his administration
(c) The vice chancellor hopes to overcome soon, the poor comments on his administration
(d) The vice chancellor does not talk of his successes on office
28. She was absolved by the course from the charge.
(a) She was convicted for the charge
(b) She was blamed and charged to court
(c) Her case was resolved by the court
(d) She was declared free from the charge
29. The landlord is fond of throwing his weight about
(a) The landlord likes healthy exercise
(b) The landlord is overweight
(c) The landlord gives orders to people
(d) The landlord is respected by his tenants
30. The company ought to have issued warrants for one billion shares.
(a) The company has issued one billion shares
(b)The management expected the company to issue more than one billion shares
(c) Members of the company bought less than one billion shares
(d) The company did not issue one billion shares
31. He needed not to have played in the position of quarterback in the volley ball.
(a) He participated in the game in his unusual position
(b)Nobody expected him to have participated in the game
(c) He wanted to play in a position other than the one he was offered.
(d) Someone did not want him to play in the position that he played
32. I wouldn’t have responded to his rude talk, if I were you.
(a) The advice was taken by the respondent, so he did not respond to the talk
(b) The adviser put himself in the respondent’s position, so he did not respond to the talk
(c) The respondent replied to the speaker’s talk, although he ought not have done so
(d) What was advisable was that the respondent gave it back to the speaker
33. He could not speak out because he had a feet of clay.
(a) His feet was muddy
(b) He was weak and cowardly
(c) He was clumsy and lazy
(d) He was shy and timid
34. The player wasted a golden opportunity during the penalty shoot-out.
(a) The player first the bar
(b) The player did not score the shot
(c) The player scored the shot that made them win the gold cup
(d) Instead of a silver cup, they received the golden one
35. As far as Abu is concerned, Mero should be given fifty naira at the most
(a) All Abu is saying is that Mero probably deserves more than fifty naira and not less
(a) All Abu is concerned with is that Mero should be given nothing more than fifty naira
(c) In Abu’s estimation, Mero merits not more than fifty naira
(d) In Abu’s opinion, Mero deserves fifty naira or probably more
(Question 36 to 100 carry 1 mark each.)
In each of question 36 to 50, choose the option opposite in meaning to the word or phrase in italics.
36. As an idiot, the boy is weak in class.
(a) a deviant
(b) a dunce
(c) en expert
(d) a genius
37. We were shocked by the news that he had lost the money.
38. The principal was advised to be flexible on critical issues.
39. Bola always looks sober.
40. Dupe was promoted for her efficiency.
41. The management wants to consider her reticent behaviour in due course.
42. Election process often become volatile.
43. Oche entered the principals office in a rather abrasive manner.
44. Otokpa is a member of the ad hoc committee on stock acquisition.
45. His gift to the poor was always infinitesimal.
46. The economist concluded that several factors have been adduced to explain the fall in the birth rate.
47. The presidential system is an antidote to some political ailments.
(a) an answer
(b) a reply
(c) an injury
(d) an obstacle
48. Ola thought that her father was very callous.
49. He was very much respected, though he had no temporal power.
50. The way the worship was organized was rather hit-and-miss.
In each of question 51 to 65, choose the option nearest in meaning to the word or phrase in italics
51. Some men will continue to cause offences until they are given a taste of their own medicine.
(b) revenged on
(c) recompensed for
52. Okibe was rusticated for his derogated remark about the principal
53. Justice is difficult to enforce because people are unwilling to accept any loss of sovereignty.
54. There are still various women in our society today.
55. The type of response is typical of a lazy teacher.
56. Akin is an inveterate gambler.
(a) s selfish and self-centred
(b) an extremely unlucky but popular
(c) an incurable but fearful
(d) a long time and incorrigible
57. He was too petrified to give the closing remarks at the conference.
58. During a particular time of the day, the road shimmers in the heat.
59. Every human being is vulnerable to communicable diseases.
60. Mariam liiks rather furtive to Shehu.
61. The student’s union leader delivered his speech extempore.
(b) off the cuff
62. His story gave us an inkling of what he passed through during the strike.
(a) a possible idea
(b) a taste
(c) a summary
(d) the right view
63. These policies have been expoused by the ruling party.
64. We must not foreclose reconciliation as the purpose of his trip.
65. Her finding exploded widely held beliefs about learning.
In each of question 66 to 85, choose the option that best complete the gap(s)
66. He was both a writer and a politician, but he was better … [A. as if B. like C. as D. to be] a singer
67. Vacancies in the company will be notified by … [A. bulletin B. publication C. publicity D. advertisement ].
68. The driver was short of petrol, so he … [A. glided B. coasted C. wheeled D. taxied down the hills with the engine switched off.
69. He started his career as an … [A. auxillary B. auxilliary C. auxilary B. auxiliary] teacher.
70. His many years of success in legal practice,… [A. indeed B. but C. in spite of it all D. however] didn’t come without challenges.
71. One should be careful how … behaves in the public, shouldn’t … [A. one/one B. he/he C. she/one D. one/he]?
72. … [A. First and formost B. First and formust C. First and farmost D. First and foremost], a good leader must have two characteristics.
73. We visited his house … [A. like B. for like C. about D. for about] three times.
74. She was … [A. at B. on C. by D. with] the verge of tears
75. Everyone makes mistakes occasionally, nobody is … [A. incorrigible B. imperfect C. infallible D. indestructible].
76. The woman would not part with her … [A. discarded earthen black B. discarded black earthen C. earthen discarded black D. black earthen discarded] pot.
77. We stood up when the principal came in … [A. isn’t it B. didn’t we C. not so D. did us]?
78. The professor of … medicine has … [A. vetinary / unraveled B. vertrinary / unravelled C. veterinary / unraveled D. veterinary / unravelled] the mystery of flu.
79. Her mother brought her some … [A. clothes B. yards C. cloth D. clothing].
80. Many workers were … [A. laid down B. laid off C. laid out D. laid up] as a result of the textile closure.
81. The driver died in the … [A. fatal B. brutal C. serious D. pathetic] road accident.
82. … your parents frown … [A. Because / over B. Since / at C. Although /at D. As / upon] our friendship, we shouldn’t see each other anymore.
83. For more productivity, the company is focusing attention on the possible … [A. synergy B. tapping C. alignment D. arrangement] of available recourses.
84. … [A. After B. Much as C. Since D. Though] she didn’t trust him, she married him.
85. I wanted to know his political beliefs, so I asked him what … [A. this was B. these are C. this is D. these were].
In each of question 89 to 91, choose the option that has the same consonant sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.
In each of questions, 92 to 94, choose the appropriate stress pattern from the options. The syllables are written in capital letters.
In each of questions 95 to 97, choose the options that has the stress on the first syllable.
(b) import (verb)
(d) export (noun)
In each of questions 98 to 100, the word in capital letters has the emphatic stress. Choose the option to which the given sentence relates.
98. The traditional chief NARRATED the story to the children.
(a) The children heard the story from the traditional chief
(b) Who narrated the story to the children?
(c) The children could not listen to the story by the traditional chief
(d) Did the chief hide the story from the children?
99.The ACCOUNTANT paid the workers’ July salary in September.
(a) When were the workers paid
(b) Did the cashier pay the workers’ salary in September
(c) Workers received their July salary in September?
(d) The September salary was paid in July?
100. The cat DEVOURED the rat.
(a) Did the rat devoured the cat?
(b) What devoured the rat?
(c) Did the cat pet the rat?
(d) Is this the rat the cat devoured?
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